The history of Moroccan Mosasaurs Species

History of Moroccan Phosphate

The history of Moroccan Mosasaurs Species dates back to 1921 when the mining operations commenced. These mines extract three layers of phosphates, categorized as follows:

  • Level 1: Ypresian phosphate bed
  • Level 2: Thanetian phosphate bed
  • Level 3: Maestrichian phosphate bed
  • Level 4: Maestrichian grey phosphate at Sidi-Chenan quarry, Ben Guerir, and Youssoufia
  • Level 5: Maestrichian, grey phosphate, white bones at Ben Guerir and Youssoufia
  • Level 6: Maestrichian, grey phosphate, white bones at Ben Guerir and Youssoufia

While these materials are commonly referred to as originating from Khouribga, most of them actually come from the Oued Zem and Sidi-Daoui zone.

One significant aspect is the presence of mosasaurs, which belong to level 3. Scientists from the French Museum of Natural History in Paris have studied four different species of mosasaurs. As per my personal opinion, there may be at least 18, and possibly 20, different species. Here is a list of some of them:

  • Halisaurus arambourgi (Bardet, Pereda Suberbiola, Iarochène, Bouya & Amaghzaz, 2005)
  • Halisaurus sp. (not yet described)
  • Halisaurus walkeri (Lingham-Solier, 1998) (temporary name until further study is conducted)
  • Prognathodon sp. Dollo, 1889
  • Thalassotitan atrox 2022 (formerly Prognathodon anceps, formerly Leiodon anceps)
  • Prognathodon solvayi Dollo, 1889
  • Prognathodon hudae kaddumi 2009
  • Prognathodon currii (Christiansen & Bonde, 2002)
  • Eremiasaurus heterodontus, gen. et sp. nov. (AR. H. LeBlanc, M. W. Caldwell, and N. Bardet, 2012)
  • "Mosasaurus" baugei Arambourg 1954 (Mosasaurus beaugei Arambourg, 1952) from the Late Cretaceous phosphates of Morocco (Nathalie Bardet, Xabier Pereda Suberbiola, Mohamed Iarochene, Fatima Bouyahyaoui, Baadi Bouya, Mbarek Amaghzaz, 2004)
  • Mosasaurus hoffmanni Mantell, 1829
  • Hainosaurus boubker, 2022
  • Slender form with a long premaxillary, similar to Tylosaurus proriger
  • Massive form with a short premaxillary, similar to Hainosaurus
  • Stelladens mysteriosus (Nicholas R. Longrich, Nour-Eddine Jalil, Xabier Pereda-Suberbiola, and Nathalie Bardet, 2023)
  • Gavialimimus almaghribensis caldwell et al, 2020 (formerly Platecarpus ptychodon Arambourg 1954)
  • Globidens phosphaticus (Bardet, Pereda Suberbiola, Iarochène, Amalik & Bouya, 2005)
  • Carinodens belgicus (N. Bardet, X. Pereda Suberbiola, M. Iarochène, M. Amalik, and B. Bouya, 2005)
  • Carinodens minalmamar (A.S. Schulp, N. Bardet & B. Bouya, 2009)
  • Harranasaurus khuludae (Kaddumi, 2009)
  • Globidens simplex (LeBlanc, Aaron, 2019)
  • Xenodens calminechari (Longrich, N.R.; Bardet, N.; Schulp, A. S.; Jalil, N., 2021)

These are some of the notable species found in the Moroccan phosphate deposits.


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